Is There a Solution to the
Catholic Debate on Contraception?

Hopefully it has become clear during the course of this study that most of the elements of a solution to the problem of contraception have been developed in the course of the debate on it, and this is true to a much greater extent than I have indicated in the text.

Once we begin to integrate these elements into a coherent whole this becomes even more obvious.

"Nothing prevents marriage", writes Albert the Great, "from thus being traced back to two or three divine institutions: one relative to nature precisely as nature, another relative to nature precisely as fallen, a third relative to nature precisely as redeemed by Christ. And so marriage is the sacrament of innocence, in the Old Testament and in the New." St. Albert the Great, In IV Sent., dist. 26, a. 5, solution.

"Nature inclines to marriage, as it intends a good which does, however, vary according to the different states in which mankind finds itself. It is therefore appropriate that, in keeping with that particular good, marriage be differently instituted in the different states of mankind." Thus St. Thomas Aquinas, In IV Sent., dist. 26, quaest. 2, a. 2, body. For St. Bonaventure, See In IV Sent., dist. 26, a. 1, quaest. 1, Quaracchi edition, 4, 661-63. (Citations from Contemporary Perspective on Christian Marriage, Richard Malone, ed., p. 345)

In the pre-Humanae Vitae debates Dupré, for example, in his Contraception and Catholics, touches on many of the necessary elements for resolving this issue. He notes the possible application of St. Thomas' doctrine on primary and secondary precepts of the natural law to the area of sexual ethics and contraception, (p. 49, note 8), and he writes on the ends of marriage:

"Since the primary end of marriage is not simply procreation (as is the "natural" end of the act of marriage) but procreation and raising to adulthood of the offspring, it would seem that, at least in those cases where continence creates a tension between the parents which seriously harms the education of the children, the pursuit of the secondary end itself is essential for the full accomplishment of the primary end. Could one call, then, an intervention arbitrary, if it precludes further procreation only in order to fully accomplish the primary end?" (p. 60)

And he comments on the pursuit of the integral nature of the conjugal act:

"I readily admit that ideally the highest perfection would consist in having the marriage act with all its consequences, or in not having it at all when those consequences cannot be accepted. But I wonder whether this ideal is always an essential perfection which man cannot omit without violating the moral law. If it is not, then we can only conclude that le mieux est parfois l'ennemi du bien, and that a person should not be called immoral because he has not reached the heights of perfection. (p. 85-6)

In this bibliography I have emphasized the post-Humanae Vitae material. Valsecchi and Shannon give good accounts of the pre-Humanae Vitae debates and Kaiser a readable account of the deliberations of the papal birth control commission.

Aguilar, Nona. (1980) No-Pill No-Risk Birth Control. NY: Rawson, Wade Publishers.

Arraj, James. (1986) St. John of the Cross and Dr. C.G. Jung: Christian Mysticism in the Light of Jungian Psychology. Chiloquin, OR: Inner Growth Books.

Arraj, Tyra and James. (1988) Tracking the Elusive Human, Volume I: A Practical Guide to C.G. Jung's Psychological Types, W.H. Sheldon's Body and Temperament Types and Their Integration. Chiloquin, OR: Inner Growth Books.

Atkinson, Gary and Albert Moraczewski. (1979) A Moral Evaluation of Contraception and Sterilization: A Dialogical Study. St. Louis, MO: Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center.

Augustine, St. (1950) The City of God. Translated by Marcus Dods. NY: The Modern Library.

Augustine, St. (1971) "On the Good of Marriage" in  A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Volume III. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Augustine, St. (1971) "On Marriage and Concupiscence" in A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Volume V. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Balthasar, Hans Urs von. (1981) "A Meditation on Ephesians 5" in Christian Married Love, Raymond Dennehy, ed. Ignatius Press.

Bauer, Andrew, ed. (1969) The Debate on Birth Control. NY: Hawthorn Books.

Boyle, Joseph M. (1980) "Contraception and Natural Family Planning" in Int. Review of Natural Family Planning, Vol. IV, No. 4, Winter 1980.

Caffarra, Carlo. (1980) "The Moral Disorder of Contraception" in Natural Family Planning: Nature's Way - God's Way. Milwaukee, WI: De Rance.

Cardegna, Felix. (1964) "Contraception, the Pill, and Responsible Parenthood" in Theological Studies, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec. 1964, pp. 611-636

Chirico, Peter. (1967) "Tension, Morality, and Birth Control" in Theological Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1967, pp. 258-285.

Coffey, Patrick. (1988) "Humanae Vitae and Contraception: A Forgotten Argument" in Linacre Quarterly, May, 1988.

Curran, Charles E. and Robert E. Hunt. (1969) Dissent In and For the Church: Theologians and Humanae Vitae. NY: Sheed & Ward.

Curran, Charles E.(1977) Themes in Fundamental Moral Theology. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
     _____(1969) "Personal Reflections on Birth Control" in The Catholic Case for Contraception, Daniel Callahan, ed. The Macmillan Company.
     _____(1984) Critical Concerns in Moral Theology. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

Delhaye, Philippe. (1984) "Nature and Grace in the Theology of Vatican II: A Note on Caffarra's, "Marriage as a Reality in the Order of Creation and Marriage as a Sacrament"" in Contemporary Perspectives on Christian Marriage, Richard Malone and John R. Connery, eds. Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press.

Drinkwater, F.H. (1965) Birth Control and Natural Law. London: Burns & Oates.

Dupré, Louis. (1964) Contraception and Catholics. Helicon.

Dupré, Louis. (1967) "Situation Ethics and Objective Morality" in Theological Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1967.

Durkin, Mary. (1983) Feast of Love: Pope John Paul II on Human Intimacy. Loyola.

Echaniz, Judith with Jeanne Sweeney and Barbara Gutowski. (1987) "The Catholic Point of View on the Regulation of Births from Reflections on Humanae Vitae by Pope John Paul II" in Linacre Quarterly, August, 1987.

Egner, G. (1967) Contraception vs. Tradition: A Catholic Critique. NY: Herder and Herder.

Elizari, F.J. (1980) "The Ten Years of Humanae Vitae" in Theology Digest 28, pp. 33-4.

Farrelly, M. John. (1970) "The Principle of the Family Good" in Theological Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2, June, 1970.

Finnis, John. (1980) "Humanae Vitae: Its Background and Aftermath" in Int. Review of Natural Family Planning, Vol. 4, No. 2, Summer 1980.

Fuchs, Josef. (1965) Natural Law: A Theological Investigation. NY: Sheed and Ward.
     _____(1983) Personal Responsibility and Christian Morality. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Griese, Orville. (1949) "Objective Morality of the Rhythm Practice" in The American Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. CXX, No. 6, June, 1949.

Grisez, Germain. (1964) Contraception and the Natural Law. Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Co.

Grisez, Germain Joseph Boyle, John Firmis and William May. (1988) "Every Marital Act Ought to be Open to New Life": Toward a Clearer Understanding in The Thomist, 52:3 (July 1988)

Guitton, Jean. (1981) "Eros and Agape" in Christian Married Love, Raymond Dennehy, ed. Ignatius Press.

Häring, Bernard. (1969) "The Encyclical Crisis" in The Catholic Case for Contraception, NY: The Macmillan Company.
     _____1969) "The Inseparability of the UnitiveProcreative Functions of the Marital Act" in Contraception: Authority and Dissent. NY: Herder and Herder.

Hildebrand, Dietrich von. (1969) The Encyclical Humanae Vitae: A Sign of Contradiction. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press.

Janssens, L. (1963) "Morale conjugale et progestogènes" in Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, t. 34, Oct.-Dec. 1963.
     _____(1966) "Chasteté conjugale selon l'encyclique Casti Connubii et suivant la constitution pastorale Gaudium et spes" in Eph. Theo. Lovan., t. 42, July-Oct. 1966.

Johann, Robert 0. (1965) "Responsible Parenthood: A Philosophical View" in Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Convention, Yonkers, NY: St. Joseph's Seminary.

John Paul II, Pope. (1981) "Community of the Family"

Kaiser, Robert Blair. (1985) The Politics of Sex and Religion: A Case History in the Development of Doctrine, 1962-1984. Leaven Press.

Kelly, Gerald. (1950) "Notes on Moral Theology, 1949" in Theological Studies, Vol. XI, No. 1, Mar. 1950.

Kerns, Joseph E. (1964) The Theology of Marriage: The Historical Development of Christian Attitudes Toward Sex and Sanctity in Marriage. NY: Sheed and Ward.

Kippley, John F. (1976) Birth Control and the Marriage Covenant. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.

Klaus, Hanna. (1973) "A second look at Humanae Vitae" in Homiletic & Pastoral Review, Oct. 1973.

Komonchak, Joseph A. (1978) "Humanae Vitae and Its Reception: Ecclesiological Reflections" in Theological Studies 39 (1978).

Kosnik, Anthony, William Carroll, Agnes Cunningham, Ronald Modras, and James Schulte. (1977) Human Sexuality: New Directions in American Catholic Thought. NY: Paulist Press.

Lynch, John J. (1963) "Changing Pastoral Emphases on the Practice of Periodic Continence" in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Convention. Yonkers, NY: St. Joseph's Seminary.

Malone, Richard, ed. (1984) Contemporary Perspective on Christian Marriage.

Maritain, Jacques. (1955) An Essay on Christian Philosophy. NY: Philosophical Library.
     _____(1940) Science and Wisdom. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
     _____(1951) Neuf leçons sur les notions premières de la philosophie morale. Paris: Chez Pierre Tequi.

Maritain, Raissa. (1955) "Abraham and the Ascent of Conscience" in The Bridge: A Yearbook of Judaeo-Christian Studies by John M. Oesterreicher, ed. Pantheon Books.

Marshall, John. (1965) Catholics, Marriage and Contraception. Baltimore-Dublin: Helicon.

Martelet, Gustave. (1967) Amour conjugal et renouveau conciliaire. Lyon: Editions Zavier Mappus.
     _____(1969) L'existence humaine et l'amour. Desclée.
     _____(1980) "A Prophetic Text Under Challenge: The Message of Humanae Vitae in Natural Family Planning. Nature's Way - God's Way. Milwaukee, WI: De Rance.

McLaughlin, Loretta. (1982) The Pill, John Rock and the Church. Little Brown.

Minority Papal Commission Report. (1969) The Catholic Case for Contraception by Daniel Callahan, ed. NY: The Macmillan Company.

Moore, Maurice J. (1973) Death of a Dogma: The American Catholic Clergy's View of Contraception. Community and Family Study Center. University of Chicago.

Nofziger, Margaret. (1976) A Cooperative Method of Natural Birth Control. Surnmertown, TN: The Book Publishing Company.

Noonan, John T., Jr. (1967) The Church and Contraception: The Issues at Stake. NY: Paulist Press Deus Books.
     _____1969) "The Amendment of Papal Teaching" in Contraception: Authority and Dissent. Charles E. Curran, ed. Herder and Herder.
     _____(1986) Contraception: A History of Its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canonists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nouvelle revue théologique. (1873) Consultation I: "Utrum conjuges licite copulari no possint, nisi ex intentione prolem generandi?" Tome V. Paris: Vve H. Casterman.

Novak, Michael. (1983) Confession of a Catholic. Harper & Row.

O'Connell, Hugh J. (1948) "Is "Rhythm" per se Illicit?" in The American Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. CXIX, No. 5, Nov. 1948.

Orr, William and James Arthur Walther. (1976) I Corinthians. The Anchor Bible. NY: Doubleday.

Pius XII, Pope. (1951) "Iis quae interfuerunt Conventui Unionis Catholicae Italicae inter Obstetrices, Romae habito" in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 20-30 Decembris 1951.

Porter, Lawrence. (1978) "The Theologian of "Humanae Vitae"" in The Thomist, Vol. 42, No. 3, July 1978.

Pousset, E. (1970) Union conjugal et liberté: Essaí sur le problème traité par l'encyclíque Humanae Vitae. Paris: Les éditions du cerf.

Rader, Rosemary. (1983) Breaking Boundaries: Male/ Female Friendship in Early Christian Communities. NY: Paulist Press.

Rahner, Karl. "On the Encyclical 'Humanae Vitae"' in Theological Investigations.

Reuss, J.M. (1964) "Don mutuel des époux et procréation" in La vie spirituelle, No. 69, May 1964.

Riga, Peter. (1973) "Humanae Vitae and the New Sexuality" in Triumph, Oct. 1973.

Rigali, Norbert. (1976) "The Historical Meaning of the Humanae Vitae Controversy" in Chicago Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, Summer 1976.

Roberts, William P., ed. Commitment to Partnership: Explorations of the Theology of Marriage. Paulist Press.

Roetzer, Josef. (1978) "Basics of the Sympto-Thermal Method" in A Reader in Natural Family Planning: Report on International Conferences. The Human Life Center. Collegeville, MN: St. John's University.
     _____(1978) "Responsible Parenthood: Is Rhythm So Great a Problem?" in A Reader in Natural Family Planning: Report on International Conferences. The Human Life Center. Collegeville, MN: St. John's University.

Ruether, Rosemary. (1964) "Birth Control and Sexuality" in Contraception and Holiness: The Catholic Predicament. Herder and Herder.

Ryan, John A. (1933) "The Moral Aspects of Periodical Continence" in The Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. 89, July-Dec. 1933)

Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. (1980) "Morality in Sexual Matters" (July 13, 1979) in The Pope Speaks, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer, 1980.

Salsmans, I. (1934) "Sterilitas Facultativa Licita?" in Ephem. Theo. Lovan., t. XI, 1934.

Shanley, Brian J. (1987) "The Moral Difference Between Natural Family Planning and Contraception" in Linacre Quarterly, Feb. 1987.

Shannon, William H. (1970) The Lively Debate: Response to Humanae Vitae. NY: A Search Book, Sheed and Ward.

Shapiro, Howard 1. (1988) The New Birth Control Book. NY: Prentice Hall Press.

Valsecchi, Ambrogio. (1968) Controversy: The Birth Control Debate 1958-1968. Washington-Cleveland: Corpus Books.

Reading: Why the Church Condemns Contraception